How do thunderstorms and supercell storms form?
With storms in the forecast for the upcoming holiday weekend, let’s take a look at thunderstorms and how they develop.
Most brief but violent disturbances in Earth’s wind systems involve large areas of ascending and descending air. Thunderstorms are no exception to this pattern. In technical terms, a thunderstorm is said to develop when the atmosphere becomes “unstable to vertical motion.” Such an instability can arise whenever relatively warm, light air is overlain by cooler, heavier air. Under such conditions the cooler air tends to sink, displacing the warmer air upward. If a sufficiently large volume of air rises, an updraft (a strong current of rising air) will be produced. If the updraft is moist, the water will condense and form clouds; condensation in turn will release latent heat energy, further fueling upward air motion and increasing the instability.
Once upward air motions are initiated in an unstable atmosphere, rising parcels of warm air accelerate as they rise through their cooler surroundings because they have a lower density and are more buoyant. This motion can set up a pattern of convection wherein heat and moisture are transported upward and cooler and drier air is transported downward. Areas of the atmosphere where vertical motion is relatively strong are called cells, and when they carry air to the upper troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere), they are called deep cells. Thunderstorms develop when deep cells of moist convection become organized and merge, and then produce precipitation and ultimately lightning and thunder.
Remember the saying: When thunder roars, head indoors.